Amid the rubble

Art at the war’s end in 1945

Werner Heldt, Still Life of Houses, 1948
Werner Heldt, Still Life of Houses, 1948
© Berlinische Galerie / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn

At the end of the Second World War, broad swathes of Europe lay in ruins. Millions of people had been killed or uprooted by the violent Nazi regime and the war. “Ground zero” in 1945 marked a new beginning for Germany’s traumatised post-war society, riddled with uncertainty and disorientation.

Georgi Petrusov, Untitled (Berlin Destroyed), 1945
Georgi Petrusov, Untitled (Berlin Destroyed), 1945
© Alex Lachmann

The Russian photographer Georgi Petrusov arrived in Berlin with the Red Army. His dramatic images record the last skirmishes in the German capital and the devastating destruction. Other photographers such as Robert Capa also produced landscapes of Berlin amid the ruins, illustrating the nightmarish situation and the daily fight for survival faced by the city’s inhabitants.

Juro Kubicek, The Monument of the Artist, 1946
Juro Kubicek, The Monument of the Artist, 1946
© Dr. Niklas Becker, Berlin

Equally moving depictions of death, grief and hopelessness – at times symbolically encoded – were created by painters and sculptors such as Jeanne Mammen, Gertrude Sandmann and Werner Heldt. But some of their works signal the hopeful release into a new, free society. There is a very personal touch to these pictures and sculptures. For artists forced to work in secret before 1945, the demise of National Socialism brought an eagerly awaited end to the isolation. At last art could unfold in liberty again. Works produced under clandestine conditions could now be shown in public.
Soon, however, art became a tribune for political conflict between the victorious Allied powers who carved up Berlin between them. Socialist Realism took hold in the East under the influence of the Soviet Union. The “free West” staked its hand on Abstract Expressionism and Art Informel, the non-representational styles already established in France and the United States.

Represented Artists (Selection)

Georgij
Petrussow

1903 - 1971

Gertrude
Sandmann

1893 - 1981

Werner
Heldt

1904 - 1954

Jeanne
Mammen

1890 - 1976

Further topics

Architektur Entwurf

New beginnings
and newbuild

Architecture after 1945 in East and West Berlin

Installation by Wolf Vostell from 1958-59

Return of the figure

Art in the 1960s and 1970s

Black and white photograph of a woman taken by the photographers Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer

Radically subjective

Berlin’s auteur photography from 1970

All topics

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